Arm, Elbow, Hand & Wrist


Healthy and functioning elbows are critical for everyday life as they are frequently used in work, sports and home life! The nicknamed ‘funny bone’ is a convergence of
three separate bones, the radius and ulna in the forearm and the humerus in the upper arm. They conjoin at the elbow wrapped in muscles, ligaments and tendons
where the bones are ‘glued’ together using a spongy substance called cartilage.

Cartilage is a natural shock absorber that prevents the bones from grating together and limits the amount of erosion to them, giving joints the freedom to glide together with ease. Despite this though, the elbow can also be the cause of multiple
musculoskeletal conditions that vary from mild discomfort to serious pain.

Dislocated Elbow

This is an incredibly common injury that afflicts both adults and children, usually caused by an outstretched hand during a fall. A dislocation occurs when the bones that create a joint are forcibly removed from their natural alignment, causing sudden and acute pain. In this case, it is when the ulna and radius of the forearm are dislocated from the humerus of the upper arm.

How is it treated?

A dislocation needs to be treated immediately and is usually solved without the need for surgery. However, complications can occur including trapped nerves, trapped arteries, fractures and osteoarthritis, requiring further treatment. Regenerative medicine can be used to effectively treat osteoarthritis.

Fractured Elbow

A fractured elbow can occur at the same time as a dislocation. The distinct difference is that a fracture is a severing of the bone whereas a dislocation is a forced misalignment. A fractured elbow can be treated with a sling and lots of rest, but sometimes it requires surgery and additional support from metal plating.

How is it treated?

Regenerative medicine can combat the aftermath of an elbow fracture, using a concentration of stem cells and the pinpoint precision of advanced imaging guidance technology; it can treat and prevent the after-effects of the break, such as arthritis.

Bursitis of the Elbow

Select joints around the body have a helping hand from ‘bursae’ which act as a buffer between the bones and tissue. Bursae are small, fluid-filled sacs that ‘oil the joints’ by providing lubrication for tissue movement over the bone. However, the bursae can sometimes become inflamed, filling with too much fluid, causing pain and irritation at the tip of the elbow. This can be caused by either trauma, infection or a prolonged medical condition.

How is it treated?

There are multiple ways to treat elbow bursitis depending on the cause. Treatments vary from injections to antibiotics to invasive surgical removal of the inflamed sacs. An issue with bursitis is that it can often return regardless of the cause and this is where regenerative medicine can help. Cutting edge non-invasive interventional orthopaedics utilise platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatments to repair damage at a cellular level, thwarting the issue at the root.

Golfer's elbow (also known as Tennis elbow), is a broad term that refers to muscular damage to the forearm, wrist and fingers due to excessive use, poor technique in sports, or an unrelated weakness of the joint. It earned its title from the many golf players that suffer from the condition. It is often caused or worsened by Golf, racket sports, throwing sports, and even weight lifting.

Generally, the only treatment provided for Golfer’s Elbow is over the counter painkillers and a brace with the instruction of rest. The pain may disappear over time if instructions are followed but for many, it relentlessly returns and can become a permanent chronic condition. Regenerative medicine strikes this problem at its core, rather than 'rest to wait and see', it uses state-of-the-art modern technology to provide a non-invasive procedure that strategically inserts natural stem cells through the use of injection that repair the damaged tendons at a cellular level.

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome can manifest as a sharp pain, numbness or tingling in the elbow and/or arm. It occurs when the ulnar nerve, often referred to as the 'funny bone', is pinched or subject to excessive pressure as it passes through the 'cubital tunnel' of tissue. This can be caused by the elbow being bent or lent on for a prolonged period, intense physical usage through sport or abnormal bone growth around the joint.

Treatments often begin with the 'rest and see' approach, along with household anti-inflammatory medicines such as Ibuprofen. If the condition persists, cortisone steroid injections are sometimes administered but these are not regularly recommended as they can cause further damage to the nerve. Invasive surgical treatments also exist for extreme cases of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome but recovery can take up to 6 weeks. Regenerative medicine provides a non-invasive alternative using world-class imaging technology that strategically injects natural regenerative cells that restore, rejuvenate and renew the damaged tendons. It repairs collagen and reduces pressure on the ulnar nerve with a minimal recovery time. 

Arthritis of the elbow can vary from mild symptoms to a debilitating condition that affects all aspects of life. There are numerous forms of arthritis that cause elbow pain, from an overactive immune system response to an erosion of cartilage that strips the joint of its shock absorber. Symptoms can manifest as pain on rotation, stiffness, clicking, tingling or numbness in the ring and pinky fingers.

X-rays can determine the cause of arthritis, as well as the specific type. Often, over the counter anti-inflammatory medicines are prescribed, with cortisone steroid injections sometimes offered too. Multiple surgical procedures also treat arthritis by either removing sections of bone, muscle and cartilage, or by replacing the joint entirely. Whilst effective, these surgeries are incredibly invasive and have a prolonged recovery time. Alternatively, regenerative medicine provides a natural and cutting edge treatment with minimal recovery time by inserting stem cells or PRP into the precise location needed, repairing the damaged cells causing the ailment.

Arm, Hand and Wrist

An arm, wrist and hand account for 30 bones altogether, 60 if you’re counting both sides! Three bones make up the arm, eight for the wrist, five create the palm and the remaining 13 are the digits. These intricate bones are wrapped in layers of muscles and tendons, with detailed trails of nerve endings, veins and arteries that together form the arm. As impressive as the biological make-up of the arm is, over-use, impact damage and infection can cause a host of health issues that require medical attention.

Arthritis of the wrist is a broad term, created to cover multiple different variants of the same problem. The cause of arthritis of the wrist can vary from natural erosion, an autoimmune disease or the result of physical trauma or injury. The wrist is a complex joint, that consists of multiple smaller joints, bones and cartilage. The bones rely on cartilage to lubricate and protect them from scraping against one another, causing damage and pain. Arthritis of the wrist is when the cartilage is depleted, causing pain, stiffness, aching, weakness in the joint and reduced mobility.

Often, the advice is to decrease activities that could be causing the deterioration of the joint, wearing a splint for support or anti-inflammatory medications. Surgical options are also available for extreme cases, which include the removal of bones, the fusing of bones or a full wrist replacement. Whilst these can solve the problem, they are incredibly invasive and result in long-term recovery. Another option is regenerative medicine which uses cutting-edge science to restore the cartilage in the wrist by repairing the damage at a cellular level. It is a non-invasive procedure, using an injection of protein-rich platelets inserted precisely where needed using advanced imaging technology.

The carpal tunnel resides on the underside of the wrist and is home to multiple tendons and nerves. When a nerve becomes compressed or 'trapped' it can provoke a myriad of symptoms ranging from pain in the wrist, fingers and palm, a weaker grip and a numbness or tingling. This can be caused by simply resting hands on a keyboard for too long, using vibrating work tools or overextending with regular use, an example being tennis. However carpal tunnel syndrome can also be a byproduct of a host of other, more serious ailments such as diabetes, high blood pressure, fluid retention, autoimmune diseases, thyroid dysfunction and wrist fractures.

Depending on the cause, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome can sometimes be treated with rest and a reduction in wrist dependent activities. A doctor may offer a splint to be worn temporarily but if the condition persists, further diagnosis and invasive surgery may be recommended. The surgical procedure normally solves CTS but it will have a month's minimum recovery time. Another solution is regenerative medicine which inserts protein-rich platelets into the carpal tunnel, restoring the collagen at a cellular level, repairing the wrist with recovery lasting a couple of days.

Tendonitis is inflammation, irritation or damage to the tendons in the wrist that cause pain, soreness and the inability to execute daily routine. The wrist is wrapped up in multiple tendons, connecting bone to muscle, when inflamed or damaged, they can enlarge or tear. Tendonitis of the wrist is mainly caused by physical overuse, but it can also be a symptom of injury, age, arthritis, or diabetes.

Tendonitis of the wrist is often treated using physiotherapy, a splint as well as establishing and reducing activities that aggravate it. Prolonged cases may be treated using steroid injections which only offer a short term solution or even invasive surgery. Regenerative medicine is also an option, it inserts plasma-rich platelets into the tendon, repairing the damage at a cellular level. This is a non-invasive alternative that has a minimal recovery period.

Many joints around the body are protected by ‘bursae’ which act as a cushion between the bones and tissue. Bursae are small, fluid-filled sacs that 'oil the joints' by providing lubrication for tissue movement over the bone. However, the bursae can sometimes become inflamed, filling with too much fluid, causing pain and irritation in the wrist. This can be caused by either trauma, infection or a prolonged medical condition.

Milder cases of bursitis of the wrist may go away on their own with rest and care, but prolonged examples may need further assistance. If the bursitis is caused by infection, antibiotics can treat the problem, but if due to excessive use or physical trauma, short term steroid injections or surgery may be offered. Another avenue to explore is regenerative medicine which uses interventional orthopaedics to insert plasma-rich platelets (PRP) directly into damaged bursae, healing and restoring them at a cellular level. It is a non-invasive procedure, with a very short recovery time.

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